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Customer Experience As Idea, Not Methodology Nor Technology

As a thinker, I am struck by how rare original thinking is in the organisational world. As a thinker, I am struck by how little thinking – as in stopping and reflecting on that which is occurring and the pattern of this occurrence – occurs in organisations. As a thinker, I am struck by how little space exists within organisational life for ideas to be entertained and grappled with before the mindless rush to implement these ideas usually through some off the shelf methodologies, methods, tools and techniques.

I say that the idea of Customer Loyalty had power.  And this power vanished when we rushed to turn this idea into practical customer loyalty programmes: loyalty cards, databases, offers and points.

I say that the idea of Relationship Marketing had power. And this power was drained and Relationship Marketing turned lifeless when the idea of Relationship Marketing was turned into the technology of CRM: systems that enslave human beings in data capture and script/process following slaves.

I say that the idea of Customer Experience has awesome power. And many are bleeding this idea dry, void of power, by turning it into the methodology of customer journey / touchpoint mapping, the blind worship at the voice of the customers, and the technology of Customer Experience.

What is it that I am getting at?  Let’s see if I can communicate that which I am seeking to communicate to the practical people that dominate organisational life.  I invite you to read the following words of wisdom (bolding is my work):

The word idea supposedly originates in the Greek word eidos, which means something seen like a form and a way of seeing like an eye, a perspective. So, ideas are not only things you can pick up and ponder. They also give you eyes, new ways of seeing things. Ideas are already operating in our perspectives, the way we look at things. We take our usual ideas for granted, and so, ideas have us rather than we have them….

Is the idea fertile, fecund? Does it make you think? Is it surprising, shocking? Does it stop you from habits and bring a spark of reflection? Is it delightful to think it? Does it seem deep? Important? …. This requires you to ponder it, which means weight it, feel its weight…. Pondering is an action of its own and keeps you holding the idea, from letting it go into other kinds of action before it is fully appreciated. Meanwhile you get a better feel of the idea….

You know, to have an idea and thinking about the idea are two different things, and being practical often means skipping over the hard thinking part…

For ideas to be therapeutic, that is, beneficial to the soul and body politic, they must gather into themselves, garnering force, building strength, like great movers of the mind’s furniture, so that the space we inhabit is rearranged. Your thoughts, feelings, perceptions, memories have to be moved around in new ways, because the furniture has been moved.

A long lasting idea, like a good poem or a strong character in a movie or a novel, continues to affect your practical life without ever having been put there. Ideas that live, live in us and through us into the world. Viable ideas have their own innate heat, their own vitality. They are living things too.

But first they have to move your furniture, else it is the same old you, with you same old habits, trying to apply a new idea in the same old way. Then nothing happens at all except the loss of the idea as “impractical” in your haste to make it “practical”.

- James Hillman, We’ve Had A Hundred Years of Psychotherapy And The World’s Getting Worse

It occurs to me that the conversations that take place here, at The Customer & Leadership Blog, are simply an ongoing exploration and pondering of the ideas of customer relationships, relationship marketing, customer service, customer loyalty, customer experience, customer-centricity, and leadership.

I am no expert, no guru,  in customer relationships (CRM), relationship marketing, customer service, customer loyalty, customer experience, customer-centricity, nor in leadership. Yet, it occurs to me, that it might just be that I have grappled with these ideas at a deeper level than many.  Therefore, any value that i create for you – the person who listens to my speaking – arises out of my willingness to stay with the idea rather than rushing to provide you with a silver bullet for your organisational ills.

Why I have shared this with you?  To provoke thought: to provoke you into doing deeper thinking into the Customer realm before you go and buy the latest snake oil from gurus, experts, consultancies, and IT vendors.  Incidentally, don’t reach for the dictionary to look up definitions of all things customer: customer service, customer relationship management, customer experience etc. Why? Definitions only provide the illusion of knowledge and understanding. There is no replacement for original thinking. A good start would be the following questions:

  • What world of possibility does the idea of Customer Experience open up for us and our customers?
  • What might Customer Experience Leadership look like, feel like, sound like, taste like – for us, for our customers? 

  • What is the first step on the journey of Customer Experience Leadership for us? Is it really getting access to the voice of the customer? Or is it doing that which we know needs to be done for our actions to be in tune with our words?

And finally, I invite you to consider that many if not most organisations have failed to make a success of relationship marketing, CRM, customer loyalty, customer experience etc because these ideas have failed to ‘move your furniture’ leaving the same old you, with the same old habits, trying to apply these radically new ideas in the same old way. 

If you have made it this far into the conversation, I say thanks for listening. These conversations are not easy, not simple. This is deliberate – these conversations are designed to provoke thought from the thoughtful. They are not for the impatient looking for the ten steps to customer success.

What Kind of Customer Experience Builds Genuine Loyalty?

What is the word that best describes or points out the fundamental context/orientation that underpins business as usual?  It occurs to me that the word is “taking”.  Taking as much as possible from the customers.  Taking as much as possible from employees. Taking as much as possible from suppliers, Taking as much as possible from the community. Taking as much as possible from the planet…..

From the context of taking you get personalised emails and direct mail that does not show up as personal. From this context of taking you get the incessant focus on replacing human customer service with self-service and the switch from skilled staff to unskilled and cheaper staff. From this context of taking you get the focus on upselling, x-selling, and increasing wallet share.

I have yet to find any meaningful and enduring relationships that are based on taking. Where the context of taking is present all that shows up is taking. And people coming up with ways of protecting themselves from being taken. This is not the case for giving.

Where actions flow from a context of giving then it is possible to arrive at symbiotic relationships. Symbiotic relationships are ones where each party brings something of value to the other such that both benefit. It occurs to me that the strongest relationships tend to be symbiotic. Symbiotic relationships start with one party giving – giving something of genuine value to the other party.

Why are so many companies struggling to generate meaningful-enduring relationships with their customers despite their investments in all kind of customer stuff? Why is it that a genuine shift towards a customer centred orientation is so difficult? I say it is difficult because all this effort and investment arises from a context of taking.  Whilst this may not be obvious to the people in the company it is obvious to customers – our bodies can tell the difference between those who care for us and those who do not.

Allow me to share an example two example with you. Examples that will illustrate the difference between taking and giving.  Let’s start by looking at the taking orientation.

This week I brought a training course. To make the sale happen the supplier offered a 10% discount amounting to £100 and threw in some extras. Given that it is summer and there is less demand for the course it makes perfect sense for the supplier. And it showed up as an attractive discount for me given that I was going to buy the course with or without the discount. Did this discount build any gratitude, any relationship, any loyalty? No. I am clear that the discount served the needs and interests of the supplier.

Are there any companies that excel at giving?  It occurs to me that giffgaff, a mobile network provider, is one such company. Earlier this month I got a email from giffgaff letting me know that the best tariff for me was the £7.50 tariff. By providing me this information giffgaff gave me the choice of switching from the £10 tariff. I didn’t switch tariffs. Nonetheless, I am delighted with giffgaff – I am delighted that giffgaff is practicing what it preaches, that the folks at giffgaff are living their values.

Let’s take a moment to look at my experience upon receiving the email. First, surprise. Second, delight. Third, gratitude. Fourth, satisfaction in having chosen giffgaff. Fifth, loyalty validated and cemented.  Sixth – advocacy as in writing this post.  Put differently, giving by giffgaff has called forth giving by me. I should point out that it is not just me.  My wife has been telling a similar story to her circle of friends and colleagues.

The lesson? I say genuine-meaningful-enduring relationships are built upon mutual giving. I say you cannot build such relationships from a context of taking – the context that underpins business as usual.  I say that as human beings we are always on the lookout for people and organisations that are trustworthy and on our side – looking after our best interest.

It occurs to me that if the people in companies pursuing customer experience, customer-centricity, even customer obsession, were to focus on giving and not clever ways of taking then they would have more success in fostering customers who are genuinely loyal.

What do you say?

Why your organisation is not customer-centric even if it is customer-centric

This is a long post and a philosophic one so you might be better off doing something else unless you have an avid interest in customer-centricity and getting to grips with it. Furthermore, you might not like what I share here. It may disturb you and you find yourself annoyed even angry at the nonsense I am speaking. You are warned, now let’s begin.

Cutting through the confusion/tiresome debate around customer-centricity

There is much speaking/writing/debating on customer-centricity. Listening/reading/taking part in this ‘conversation’ it occurs to me that there is so much confusion about customer-centricity and the term has either become discredited or will be if we carry on as we are carrying on. So I write this post to bring clarity and workability to customer-centricity.

It occurs to me that the confusion around customer-centricity arises as a result of two distinct ways of talking about/making sense of customer-centricity being collapsed into each other. It is because of these two distinctions that it is possible for an organisation to be customer-centric and ‘not customer-centric’ at the one and the same time. There are subtle nuances around these distinctions which provide more distinctions. For the sake of brevity I am only going to explore/share the two big distinctions and ‘uncollapse’ them.

Customer-centricity as means (vehicle to get you to your end destination)

As I understand it, the marketing literature that brought ‘customer-centricity’ into the mainstream is concerned with customer-centricity as a means – as a vehicle for attaining marketing objectives. The business literature followed so that when ‘business strategists’ talk about customer-centricity they are talking means of accomplishing business objectives. When these marketers, these strategists, talk about customer-centricity then they talk about the course of action that the business takes (strategy). And they talk about organisational design – the way that the business should be organised (structure, roles, KPIs, management information etc) around customer segments rather than products.

In a product-centric company management is concerned with finding ways of selling more products to whoever can be made to buy the products. And the measure of success at playing this game is market share. Furthermore, in a product centric company the company will be organised around products. Business unit A will focus on one category of products from manufacturing/sourcing through to selling/servicing. Business Unit B will focus on a different category of product. When it comes to information you will find that it easy to get hold of information on/around products. For example, you will be able, easily, to find out how much of a particular product was sold; you will not be able, without considerable effort, to find out which products a customer bought across the entire product range supplied by the company as a whole. Then there is understanding / insight: you are likely to find that there is a lot of understanding of products but understanding/insight regarding customers (the context of their lives, what matters to them, how they buy etc) will be shallow.

According to the theorists and consultants the management of a customer-centric company should be concerned with ‘share of wallet’ not market share. The organisation should be organised around customer segments. And the strategy should be concerned with generating deep insight into customers and using this insight to come up with products, services, solutions even experiences that get customers to buy more from the organisation whilst costing less to serve. This may mean sourcing/creating new products to meet newly identified unmet needs. Or it could mean coming up with better value propositions: re-jigging how and what you communicate so that these customers buy more from you. The theory goes that if you do this then your organisation will keep more of your customers and they will ‘recruit’ new customers for you through word of mouth marketing.

So this school of customer-centricity, customer-centricity as means to, is concerned with changing organisations from being product centric to customer-centric. Or from an ‘inside out’ orientation to an ‘outside in’ orientation. So the talk deals with formulating customer-centric strategies, changing/transforming the organisation, putting in CRM systems…….

Notice that when taking about customer-centricity as means there are no moral questions, no moral considerations. In this clearing one grapples with formulating the right strategy, the right organisational design, picking the right CRM systems and bring about the desired change.

Customer-centricity as ends (‘for the sake of which’)

This is where it gets interesting. It is possible and some people do talk about customer-centricity in terms of ends/purpose. You see it is possible and necessary to ask the question: why, for what purpose, are we going to all this effort to move from being product-centric to customer-centric, from ‘inside-out’ to ‘outside-in’? Heidegger came up with the distinction ‘ for the sake of which’, which I want to use. All this effort to be customer-centric (as means) what is it for the sake of?

Read the literature that is used to by theorists, consultants and technology vendors and you find your answer: for the sake of the profit motive, for the sake of making higher profits. So the fundamental centre of the game of business has not changed at all. The be all and end all of the game of business continues to be the profit motive: making the numbers to enrich shareholders. Just the means has changed. That is fine. And consistent with customer-centricity as means.

Now throw into the mix a very different bunch of people. People who have a different understanding and speaking of customer-centricity. These people say that for a company to count as customer-centric, it has to be run ‘for the sake of contributing to / enriching the lives of customers’. These people are not naive, they get that for a company to survive it has to be profitable and it has be concerned with making profit. And they argue that the key difference is that the profit motive is secondary: a requirement to play/stay in the game rather than the raison d’etre of being in and playing the game.

Look, you and I have to be concerned with food/eating yet that is not the reason we choose to live, that is not what our lives are about. Or consider Steve Jobs. Jobs claimed that he never did it for the money. He claimed that he was driven, obsessed with, creating products that he loved to use, his family friends loved to use, products that he could be proud. Yet, Jobs was enough of a pragmatist to know that Apple needed to be profitable. When he came back and took the helm at a bloated and almost bankrupt Apple, Job was ruthless in making tough decisions including cutting product lines, distribution channels and firing employees that did not meet the standards/requirements set by Jobs.

Where did it customer-centric as ‘for the sake of contributing to / enriching lives of customers’ originate? As far as I can tell there are two sources – the Scandinavian school of relationship marketing and the Services school coming out of the USA. I am thinking of the likes of Gronroos, Berry, Parasuraman, Heskett, Sasser, Zeithaml and Bitner. Read through this literature and you will come across moral values and considerations, including customers as ends in themselves and not just simply means, even if they are well disguised. Why disguised? I say because these guys were seeking to get traction and influence the powerful ‘hard’ types in business.

Why it is that your organisation is not customer-centric even if it is customer centric and how it explains the lack of authentic customer loyalty

By now you should get why it is that one person can say that an organisation is customer-centric and another person can say that this very same organisation is not customer-centric. And they can both be right, be speaking ‘truthfully': one is talking about/pointing at customer-centricity as means and the other is speaking about /pointing at customer-centric as ends where the ends is for the sake of contributing to / enriching the lives of customers.

According to surveys, executives consider their companies to be customer-centric and yet few customers consider companies to be customer-centric. The executives are standing in the clearing customer-centricity as means and customers are standing in the clearing customer-centricity ‘for the sake of contributing to / enriching customer lives’. So is it any surprise that standing in two different spots they see very different views and come up with different answers?

I say that vast sums have been spent in the name of customer-centricity and they have not delivered the promised land. Why? because companies have continued to play the same game (the profit motive) and simply changed the means: customer-centricity as means. They are not at fault. They have been encouraged in following this path by legions of marketing theorists, business strategists, consultants and technology vendors. Yet, this path can never lead to the promised land. Why?

Because when the customer talks about a company being customer-centric he is talking about and pointing at a company that shows up for her as being in business ‘for the sake of contributing to / enriching the lives of customers’. And so few companies are playing this game.

Let me tell you a story

An angel disobeyed God (so goes a story by Tolstoy) and is punished – thrust naked into world, a churchyard of a small Russian village. A poor cobbler passing by, ignorant of the angels divine origin, saves him from freezing to death; gives him clothing, food and shelter; and keeps him on as an apprentice. Several years pass.

Then one day this fallen angel smiles in such a way that his face radiates an extraordinarily dazzling light. The cobbler begins to wonder about his guests origins and asks him why such a radiant light shines about him. The angel then reveals himself for what he is, explaining that the only way he will be able to go back to Heaven is to learn what people live by.

He says that his understanding had begun when – having turned into a man – he was rescued from freezing in the churchyard. Now, continues the angel, he has finally realised that human beings cannot live each for himself, that they are necessary to one another, and that love is what they live by.

And finally

As customers we may not want relationships with companies, with businesses. Yet we can tell when we are loved. When it occurs to us that a company, an organisation, loves us then we cannot help but form a bond, an attachment with that company. When I think of such bonds of attachment I think of USAA. It occurs to me that this company does exist for the sake of contributing to and enriching the lives of its customers – military personnel and their loved ones. Clearly customers ‘feel the love’ and reward USAA with their loyalty. Which may explain why USAA is the leader/the exemplar of customer loyalty in the categories it operates.

Do you love your customers? Do you love your customers like USAA does? Or do you love the profit motive and fake love for your customers?

giffgaff: how to generate delight and advocacy without spending a fortune

Occasionally I come across a brand, an organisation, a bunch of people who get it, who practice it as opposed to talk about it.  Who am I talking about?  I am talking about giffgaff – a mobile virtual network operator that works off / is tied to the O2 network in the UK.  giffgaff is unusual/innovative as a brand/organisation and I have written about giffgaff here and here. You should know that my family and I are members/customers of giffgaff.

Delight is the gateway to the heart

There is a school of thought that says that delighting customers is expensive and unnecessary.  I say that if you want to cultivate emotional affinity with your brand, create fans and generate customer advocacy then delight is the gateway that gets you there.   I say that you can generate delight by:

  • being there for your customers;
  • making it easy for the customer to get done the job that the customer needs done; and
  • injecting humanity (high touch) into the encounter between you and your customer.

Furthermore, I say that it is not expensive to evoke delight in your customers. Allow me to share with you how giffgaff has generated delight and cultivated gratitude/loyalty with me and my daughter.

How my daughter and I came to love giffgaff

Talking with my 11 year old daughter I found that her phone was useless as a phone as she had lost the SIM.  It turned out that the SIM had gone missing several weeks ago.  She hadn’t told me because she was thinking that it will cost money to get a replacement SIM and she didn’t have the money; she is great at spending, not so great at saving.

Within a minute or so we had logged on her account.  Straight away we found the link for ‘Lost SIM’ and then from there it took us less than 30 seconds to block the SIM and order a replacement.  My daughter and I were both happy at how it easy it was.  The job that we needed to get done (block the old SIM, order a replacement SIM) was done with several clicks and in less than two minutes.  Easy, easy, easy!  Thank you giffgaff for being there for us and making it easy to get the job that needed to be done, done.

What else did we notice?  We noticed that we were both grateful to giffgaff.  Why?  Because we were expecting giffgaff to charge us for this service yet giffgaff did not charge us.  So giffgaff showed up as generous: a friend helping us out in time of need as opposed to a business intent solely on making money from its customers.

When you have lost your SIM and order a replacement what is your ideal outcome?  That the SIM will arrive quickly, ideally the next day.  Yet, what is likely to be your experience?  My experiences with other companies had led me to believe that the SIM would take 3 -5 days to arrive.  What happened?  A colorful envelope (see below) arrived the next day.  What was our experience?  Surprise and delight.  I remember saying to myself “Wow, these guys care, they have their house in order!”

Notice the language that is being used?  How does it show up in your world?  In our world it showed up as quirky/friendly/even fun.  More importantly, it showed up as the kind of tone/language that a friend, a warm human being, would use as opposed to a corporation.

With my daughter standing by my side I opened up the envelope and this what greeted us:

What was our experience?  Surprise and delight.  What generated this surprise and delight?  The ‘tone’ that is conveyed by the language that is used.  This ‘piece of communication’ showed up as being written by a caring human being, a friend!  This is personalisation that actually shows up as personal and pulls the heart strings.  It occurs as genuine, heartfelt, authentic.  There is so much talk about ‘social’ and so little understanding of ‘social’.  I say this piece of communication is ‘social’.  I say if you really want to get social then study this communication.

What you can learn from this?

1) Ease matters, it makes a difference.  Lack of ease drives up customer frustration, generates customer complaints, drives up costs as customers use the call centre as opposed to using the website.  And lack of ease drives up defection: customers go to suppliers who are easier to do business with.  There are companies that have become giants simply because they have got ease right: Amazon is the giant that it is because the folks at Amazon have made it so easy to buy all kinds of products from Amazon.

2) Speed of response matters.  The faster that you are at responding to customer requests the more of an impact you make.  Customers are human beings, human beings impute – they read stuff into stuff.  When you respond fast customers impute that you care, that you are competent, that the customer is in safe hands.  When you slow in responding customers assume that you do not care about them and that you are incompetent, understaffed, unprofessional….

3) Generosity matters, it is noticed, it touches the heart.   Generosity does not have a big presence in the business world.  As customers we expect to be made to pay for just about everything.  We particularly expect to be squeezed for every penny, every dime, when we have an urgent need and we are at fault.   In such a world generosity gets noticed.   And for many of us generosity generates gratitude.  Most of us are brought up to practice the rule of reciprocity: one good turn deserves another.

4) You can generate delight and affinity simply by using the right language with the customer.  What does it require?  Humanity: getting and treating human beings with dignity, with compassion.  And it is cheap!  How much money would giffgaff have saved by making their envelope bland (not colorful) or using cold, unfriendly, corporate speak?  Sometimes I think that for all the talk about customers and customer focus, what is really missing is ‘love for the customer’ as a fellow human being.  Put differently, what is missing is putting our humanity, the best of our humanity, into the game of business.

What do you say?

Are we asking too much of marketers and the Marketing function?

The implications for Marketing when the company|customer ‘relationship’ is viewed through SD Logic

I have been reading this deck that has been posted on Slideshare by Wim Rampen.  In this presentation Wim is making the case for looking at the business|customer ‘relationship’ through Service Dominant Logic.  In a nutshell SD logic states that service is the fundamental basis of exchange between the company and the customer; products are services in disguise – you go and buy a drill to get access to the service of drilling a hole/s, there is no intrinsic value in the drill itself.

Looking at the business|customer relationship Wim makes the following point (I have modified his language to make certain concepts clearer):

If value for the Customer is dominantly created after the value exchange (buy/sell when goods are transferred from producer to the consumer), ie. IN USE, both the scope and content of MARKETING STRATEGIES SHOULD SHIFT from dominantly focused on creating momentum for value exchange (promotion /selling) to a continuum of interactions aimed at supporting the customer’s value creation process.

Do you get it?  Wim is asking marketers and the Marketing function to shift from doing what they current do to designing and orchestrating the Customer Experience – across all interactions and touchpoints along the customer’s journey from research through to ownership and usage.    This is how Wim puts it:

Marketing  has to shift “from campaign and communication design to service experience design, end to end..”

Accepting this as the ground, the context, out of which Marketing operates, Wim goes on to spell out the key jobs that marketers and the Marketing function should be doing.

Wim Rampen: The 7 jobs that fall to the Marketing function

1. Understand customers’ value creation process (= jobs & desired outcomes) and where in the process customers fail to meet their desired outcomes;

2. Build relationships in communities of people with similar desired outcomes and behaviour;

3. Support customer’s value creation process;

4. Design experiences that stimulate engagement through interactions in networks of relationships;

5. Engage employees and partners in supporting customers in their process of value creation;

6. Extract actionable insights from 360-degree feedback to foster innovations and to turn them into value propositions that attract new customers; and

7. Redesign metrics to capture the engagement value for the firm and ensure there is high correlations between these metrics and customers value created.

Is Wim is asking too much of marketers and the Marketing function?

Lets assume that these are the jobs that need to be performed when it comes to the customer|customer relationship.  Now the question is do marketers (and the Marketing function) have the required skills to do these jobs?  Many of us would say that they do not.  Yet, that is not an issue because people who do have the skills can be brought into the Marketing function.  Do marketers have the required mindset and attitude?  That is debatable – people, as groups, are loathe to let go of their mindset, values and attitudes.  Yet, it is doable so let’s assume that marketers and the Marketing function can make that shift.

Now we come up with the more interesting question: does the Marketing function have the influence, the clout, to design and orchestrate end to end Customer Experience / “service experience design”?  Before you answer this question get present to what is being asked of the Marketing function.  The Marketing function is being asked to orchestrate the mindset, metrics and behaviour of all the functions and people in the enterprise: product development, sales, customer services, logistics, finance, human resources, information technology….  Is that realistic?  And if that task falls to the Marketing function then why have a CEO or the Board of Directors?

Look into what is so (reality) and you are likely to find that the Marketing function is simply one piece on the corporate chessboard and its mandate / role is limited to using advertising and spin to stimulate demand for the products that the corporation makes and needs to sell.   That is all that is expected of the Marketing function.  Sit with marketers and you are likely to find that they feel boxed in, limited, by the space that they are given to play in.  Only a few Marketing functions control the 4Ps – most only control one P, Promotion.  What I am pointing at is the gulf between marketing theory and the reality on the ground.

We are looking at organisational transformation and Marketing cannot lead that

Continue looking into reality and you are likely to find that the Marketing function that has little respect in the Boardroom or within the organisation in many if not the majority of companies.  If that is so then how is the Marketing function going to take the lead an, in effect, transform the organisation: product development, sales, customer services, logistics, finance, human resources, IT etc – they all have to play together to provide the kind of end to end service experience that Wim is talking about.

The role of organisational renewal and transformation belongs to the Tops (the CEO and the senior leadership team) and not the Marketing function.  Collectively the Tops need to: buy into the services dominant logic way of looking at the business; articulate an inspiring vision of the future and convert this into a blueprint; have the guts to requisition and deploy the right resources to convert that blueprint into reality; roll their sleeves up and help in turning the blueprint into reality; see it through to the end – be committed to the end goal; and be flexible and patient in going around obstacles on the path – there will be many obstacles.

If you are still in doubt over the point that I am making then ponder this: how likely is it that one of the States in the United States is in a position to influence and orchestrate the agenda / priorities / behaviour or all of the States in the United States so as to create harmony across all?  Then ask yourself if you did want that kind of harmony – say in the laws that apply – across the States then who is best placed to lead that task?  Is it really one of the States?  And if it is, which one is best placed, has the most credibility, the most influence, to bring about that kind of change?  Then ask yourself how long this process is likely to take?

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